The Evolution of Opportunities for Children in Chile 1990-2006
Tomás Rau; Dante Contreras; Osvaldo Larrañaga; Esteban Puentes
CEPAL Review 106. April 2012
Abstract: In this paper we measure the evolution of inequality of opportunity in Chile. These measures assess how unequal the distribution of socioeconomic outcomes is, based on exogenous circumstances. The results show a reduction in inequality of opportunity from 1990 to 2006. The gains are of two classes. First, social service coverage has increased substantially, leading to a general improvement in opportunities. Second, the gaps in access probabilities among population subgroups have been reduced, making the playing ﬁeld more balanced. These results should be interpreted as partial evidence for the evolution of opportunities in Chile. We also found a signiﬁcant gap in the opportunity index across Chile, which reﬂects differences in both coverage rates and the distribution of opportunities within regions. The reduction in inequality is good news, but Chile still has a long way to go to achieve an equitable distribution of welfare.
Keywords: Children, social development, equality of opportunities, education, health, sanitation, measurement, social indicators, health indicators, Chile.
JEL: D31, D63, I3.
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